你想知道英语语音学?大学本科英语专业都学哪些课程?

时间:2019-06-25 16:14       来源: 安心英语

英语语言学要怎么学

真的蓄毅力想学好,背课文!!记笔记!!保持背,极端管用!!重点如下:第一章 绪 论

会心把握和明白语言学斟酌范畴,人类语言的离别性个性以及语言学斟酌中的主要思想:规定性和描述性;共时性和历时性;口头语和书面语;语言和言语;实力和使用。

识记定义:语言学、语言、任性性、创造性、二重性、移位性、文化递送性

第二章 音系学

会心把握音系学和语音学的类似性和相异性、音系的序列法规、同化法规和省略法规;超音位个性对语义的关系;明白人类的发音器官、元音和辅音的分类准绳,并能使用这些准绳对语音进行分类与分辨。

识记语音学、宽式和严式标音法、音素、音位、音位变体、音位对峙、互补分布、最小对峙对以及超音位个性。

第三章 形态学

会心把握构词法规和构词窍门、和复合法的书写个性、句法个性、语义个性和语音个性。

识记形态学、语素、自由语素、黏着语素、词根、词缀、屈折词缀、派生词缀。

第四章 句法学

会心明白句子的大略成分和类型、句子的组合法规、句子的线性与层次性、深层与表层关系以及普遍语法准绳。

识记句法学、层次构造、语法范畴、语法关系、短语构造法规、X-标杆理论、普遍语法。能使用所学的语法学知识剖析相关问题。

第五章 语义学

明白把握语义斟酌的几种主要理论:命名论、意念论、语境论、行动主义论;主要的含意关系;含意剖析的两种形式:成分剖析和述谓构造剖析;句子间的语义关系:如:同义关系、冲突关系、蕴涵关系、预设关系、冲突句、语义反常等。

识记定义语义学、含意、所指、同义关系:方言同义词、文体同义词、表情含意和评价含意相异的同义词、调配同义词、语义相异的同义词;反义关系:可分等级反义词、互补反义词、关系反义词;多义现象;同形同音异义现象;上下义关系。

第六章 语用学

会心把握语用学与传统语义学的离别、语境、句子语义与话语语义的离别、言有所为与言有所述的离别;言行家为、言外行动和言和行动;Searle的言外行动分类以及阐述类,召唤类,许偌类,表白类和宣告类的言外之的;能够使用言语行动理论和会话准绳阐释一些语言现象。

识记定义语用学、协作准绳、数量准绳、质量准绳、关系准绳和形式准绳;

第七章 历史语言学

会心把握斟酌语言改换的目的与含意;语言改换的本色;英语历史进展的主要阶段以及各个阶段的个性;英语体系的语音改换、形态改换、句法改换、词汇改换、语义改换;语系的划分,奇特是印欧语系;语言改换的原因:如语音同化、法规的简化、内部借鉴、法规的细化、社会因素和文化流传等。

识记历史语言学、历时语言学、原始语、语系、同源词、古英语、中古英语、元音大变位、词尾音脱落、插入音、语音变位;混杂法、派生法、首字母缩略法、混杂法、缩写法、略写法、逆成法等;语义的广义化、语义的狭义化、语义的演变等。

第八章 社会语言学

会心把握语言与社会的关系,社交场景中各种社会因素对语言使用的关系;评判语言使用中的各种变体的本色个性,如地域变体、社会变体、语域变体等;明白黑人英语的语言个性、男性与女性的言语个性;弄清忌讳语和委婉语的本色关系,称谓语与社会因素的关系;双言与双语现象、共同语(Linguo franca)与洋径浜语(pidgin)以及准绳语与非准绳语的类似性和相异性。

识记定义社会语言学、言语社区、社会方言、地域方言、一己言语、语域、准绳语、通用语、洋径浜语、克里奥尔语、双言现象、双语现象、民族方言、教导变体、年岁变体、性别变体、称谓语、俚语、忌讳语、委婉语。

第九章 心理语言学

会心把握语言的生理根基、语言侧化、语言的中枢、语言习得的关键期以及语言与思维的关系;盖奇案例、吉妮案例以及两耳分听实验的语言学含意;各种效能在左右脑中的侧化以及语言中枢中的布罗卡区、韦尼克区和角形脑回在语言感知、明白和表白中的作用;明白有关语言与思维关系的一些早期见解;弄清萨丕尔—沃尔夫设想,并能够从词和含意的关系,语法构造,语言的可译性,第二语言习得,语言与世界观等方面临萨丕尔——沃尔夫设想进行批驳;评判语言的主要效能以及语言对思维的关系。

识记定义:心理语言学、大脑皮层、侧化、右耳优势、关键期、语言定夺论、语言相对论、萨丕尔—沃尔夫设想、自我社交、无声言语、有声思维

第十章 语言习得

会心把握人类语言实力的生理根基和进展过程;语言习得主要是语法规矩的习得;第一语言习得与第二语言习得的相异性和类似性;第一语言习得进展过程的各阶段、各阶段儿童语言的个性以登科一语言习得中语言输入、交流的作用,语言教学的作用,纠错与强化的作用和仿效的作用;Krashen有关习得与学习的离别;第二语言习得中语言输入的作用,教学的作用以及年岁、动机、语言文化输入、个性等一己因素对第二语言习得的关系。

识记定义:语言习得、幼儿保育人言语、行动主义的学习理论、独词句、双词句、多词句、电报式言语、语言转移、打扰、比拟剖析、语际语、语言僵化、动机、插手性动机、工具性动机、语言文化移入等。

我家小孩学的这个也是一家极端不错的在线一对一英语培训机构,占有上课日期灵便、定制一对一、至少课程价格才16.3/节课、免费试听等多个长处。是在线英语教导做得很好的一家公司,很专业。孩子也很酷爱上外教课试课地址:【https://www.acadsoc.com.cn/xbk/Shi-Ting】

大学英语语言学的考试重点

articulatory phonetics(发音语音学)--the study of the production of speach sounds.

acoustic phonetics:(声学语言学) --the study of physical properties of speech sounds.

Allophones(音位变体)--the different phones which cab represent a phoneme in different phonetic environments are called the allophones of taht phoneme.

consonant(辅音):a major category of sound segments produced by a closure in the vocal tract,or by a narrowing which is so marked that air can not escape without producting audible friction.

compositionality(综合性准绳):the meaning of a sentence should be viewed from both the grammatical structure and the word meaning.In other words,the meaning of a sentence depend on the meanings of the constituent words and the way they are combined.

cooperative principle(协作准绳):1,Maxim of Quantity.2,maxim of Quality.3,Maxim of relatiob.4,Maxim of manner.

Constatives(叙事句):a constative sentence is a description of what the speaker is doing at the time of speaking.It can be said to be ture or false.

Endocentric(向心构造):is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its constituents,i,e,a word or a group of words,which serves as a definable centre or head.

Exocentric(离心构造):it refers to a group of syntactionally related words where none of the words is functionally equivalent to the group as a whole,that is,there is no definable "center" or "head" inside the group

illocutionary act(行事行动):when we speak we not only produce some units of language with certain meanings,but also make clear our purpose in producing them,the way we intend them to be understood,or they also have certain forces.The act performed is known as a

linguistics(语言学):is the the scientific study of language

Language:is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.

locutionary act(发话行动):when we speak we move our vocal organs and produce a number of sounds organzined in a certain way and with a certain meaning.The act performed in this sense is called a

morpheme(语素):is the smallest unit of language in terms of the relationship between expression and content,a unit that can not be divided into fuither,smaller,units without destorying or drastically altering the meaning whether it is lexical or grammatical.

Morphology(形态学):is a branch of linguistics which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed.

Phonetics(语音学):phonetics studies how speech sounds are produced,transmitted and perceived.

Pragmatics(语用论):is the study of these relations between language and context that are grammaticalized,or encoded in the structure of a language.

perlocutionary act(取效行动):whether or not the effects are intended by the speaker,they can be regarded as parts of the act that the speaker performed.this act is called.

performatives(施为句):some sentence is the doing of an action.They can not be said to be true or false.these sentences are called.

phoneme(音位):is a phonological unit which is the smallest unit of sound in a language which can distinguish two words.

phonology(音系学):is the study of the sound patterns and sound systems of languages.It aims to discover the principles that govern the way sounds are organized in languages and to explain the variations that occur.

sapir-whorf hypotheses(沃尔夫设想):our language helps mould our way of thinking and,consequently,different languages may probably express speakers` unique ways of understanding the world.

Semantics(语义学):is the study of meaning,or more specifically,the study of linguistic units,words and sentences in particular.

sense relations(意思关系):the sense of a word may be seen as network of its sense relation with others.

Syntax(句法):is the study of the rules governing the ways different constituents are combined to form sentences in a language,or the study of the interrelationships between elements in sentence structure.

syntax relations(句法关系):syntax relations can be analysed into three kinds: positional relations,relations of substitutability.and relations if co-occurrence

suprasegmentals(超音段个性):units which extend over more than one sound in an utterance.The principal suprasegmentals are syllable,stress,tone and intonation.

theory of conversational implicature(会话意思论):in real communication,the intention of the speaker is often not the literal meaning of what he or she says.the real intention implied in the words is called.

vowel(元音):a major category of sound segments produced without abstruction of the vocal tract so that air eascapes in a relatively unimpeded way through the mouth or the nose.

这个是定义调查

下面的是大题

Design features of language(语言的构造个性)
arbitrariness,duality,creativity,displacement,cultural transmission

functions of language 语言的效能
informative,interpersonal function,performative,emotive function,phatic communication,recreational function,metalingual function

Important distinctions in linguistics语言学主要离别

1,descriptive and prescriptive描述和规定
离别:the distinction lies in prescribing how things ought to be and describing how things are.
1:the linguistic study aims to describe and analyse the language people actually use.
2: the linguistic study aims to lay down rules for correct and standard "behavior" in using language.

2,synchronic and diachronic(共时和历时)
1:said of an approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time.
2:said of the study of development of language and languages over time.

3,language and parol(语言和言语)
1,the language system shared by a "speech community".
2,the concrete utterances of a speaker.

4,competence and performance(语言实力和应用)
1,unconscious knowledge of the system of grammatical rules in a language
2,the language actually used by people in speaking and writing.

语音学三疆土:
articulatory phonetics(发音语音学
acoustic phonetics:(声学语言学)
perceptual or auditory phonetics:感知语音学和听觉语言学

theory of the illocutionary Act行事行动论:locutionary act发话行动,illocutionary act行事行动,

两种句子:performatives and constatives(施为句和叙事句)

cooperative principle协作准绳:1,Maxim of Quantity.2,maxim of Quality.3,Maxim of relatiob.4,Maxim of manner.

沃尔夫设想主要理论:on one hand,language may determine our thinking patterns.,on the other hand,similarity between languages is relative.For two different speech communities,the greater there structure differentiation is,the more diverse their conceptualization of the word will be.

上个学期用过的 不获悉你们老师是这样画的重点 凑合看看吧。。。

有关英语语言学的问题。 在PHONETICS和Phonology 一章中, phone, phoneme allophone 究竟离别指什么啊?

phonetics 是语音学。
phonology 是音系学(端庄:不是音韵学,音韵学是historical phonology,即历史音系学)。
phone 是音素,在语音学中常常斟酌音素的发音、流传和感知,所以音素表现语音的大方属性,音素跟深刻的语言无关,例如音素[i]在汉语、英语、法语、日语中都存在。
phoneme 是音位,在音系学中音位是某一语言的语音单位,音位是一个隐约单位 (即an abstract unit ),音位和音位之间的关系穿越离别个性互相离别,所以每个音位是一各离别个性单位 (即 a phoneme is a unit of distinctive value)。所以音位跟深刻的语言相联系,是能离别含意的最小的语音单位,在汉语日常话中[a A ɑ]这三个音素是同一个音位,诚然它们有很大离别,可是在汉语日常话中不具备离别含意的效能,所以都属于同一个音位,写作ɑ。以“妈”为例,一一己发[ma]、[mA]、[mɑ]的意思都一样,都是“妈”。
allophone 是音位变体,即使放入同一个音位的不同音素,以汉语日常话的ɑ音位为例,包罗四个音位变体,即mai中的[a],ma中的[A],mang中的[ɑ],以及mian中的[ɛ]。

端庄:以上文本中只要带“[ ]”的字母都是以国际音标标写的音素,不带“[ ]”是汉语拼音或英文。

大学本科英语专业都学哪些课程?

 

大学本科英语专业必要学习的课程主要有:英语精读、英语泛读、英语听力、英语语法、英语口语、英语写作、综合英语、英汉翻译、汉英翻译、语言学概论、英美文学、英语国度文化。当中主干课程:精读,泛读,听力,口语,写作,翻译等是主干课程。

 

向左转|向右转

 

扩大资料:

英语专业日常能够选修第二专业,大二下学期初步选修,共上四个学期。可选日语、西语、德语、法语和俄语。据学校详纵状况而定,赋予学位与英语语言文学相同。

英语专业学生主要学习英语语言、文学,英美等英语国度历史、政治、经济、外交、社会文化等方面大略理论和大略知识,受到英语听、说、读、写、译等方面的优良的技巧训练,把握必须的科研窍门,占有从事翻译、斟酌、教学、管教工作的业务程度及较好的涵养与实力。

参考资料:百度百科-英语专业

 

 

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